7  An ipseology glossary

Absent (event)
Events are tallied when a bio is observed at two time points. An Absent event occurs when the token of interest is not present at both points in time. Compare to Add, Delete and Keep events.
Add (event)
Events are tallied when a bio is observed at two time points. An Add event occurs when the token of interest is not present at the first moment and is present at the second moment.
Alloy
In ipseology, an alloy is the mixture of two elements of identity. If two tokens are present in a bio at the same time, they form an alloy.
Annual resolution
If we observe bios once per year (or sample to one-per-year) we can discuss year-over-year changes/trends in ipseity. Call this annual resolution. Compare to daily resolution.
Bio / Biography
A bio is short text, written by an individual to describe themselves.
Cross-sectional (sample)
A collection of bios sampled over time in which the observed individuals are NOT guaranteed to be the same at each point in time. Cross-sectional samples are useful for describing the active or available population at each moment of observation. Contrast with longitudinal. Reference
Daily resolution
If we observe bios once per day (or sample to one-per-day) we can discuss day-to-day changes/trends in ipseity. Call this daily resolution. Compare to annual resolution.
Delete (event)
Events are tallied when a bio is observed at two time points. A Delete event occurs when the token of interest is present at the first moment and not present at the second moment.
Incidence
Incidence is a raw count. In ipseology, we might count how many US Twitter users include “mom” or “dad” in their profile biography. It is useful to convert an incidence to a prevalence when comparing across time or location.
Ipseology
Ipseology is the study of human identity using large datasets and computational methods. It is the investigation of ipseity: personal identity, selfhood and the essential elements of identity.
Keep (event)
Events are tallied when a bio is observed at two time points. A Keep event occurs when the token of interest is present at the first moment and is also present at the second moment.
Longitudinal (sample)
A collection of bios sampled over time in which the exact same individuals are guaranteed to be present at each and every point in time. Longitudinal samples are useful for describing the changes within individuals across moments of observation. Contrast with cross-sectional. Reference
Ngram
An ngram is a sequence of tokens. See the definition of Token below.
An ngram may be a signifier, and thus, an element of identity.
Explore ngram usage within Twitter bios in the United States or multinationally.
Personally expressed identity
Personally expressed identity is who or what an individual themselves says they are.
It is personal – the individual is describing themselves.
It is expressed – these are words the individual emits, where others might see them.
And it describes identity – the explicit purpose of the text is description of the author.
Prevalence
Prevalence is a normalized count. It is the incidence (raw count) of an outcome divided by the potential occurrences. In ipseology, we might wish to contrast how many US Twitter users per 10,000 include “mother” with how many Mexican Twitter users per 10,000 include “madre” in their profile biography.
Token
A token is one linguistic unit. Bios consist of tokens, and we may split a bio into sequences or a set of tokens.
Tokens include words such as one would find in the dictionary, but also word-like things such as abbreviations, hashtags and emoji. Crucially, and happily for our purposes, a great many of these tokens describe aspects of identity – such as social roles, affiliations and personal traits.
A token may be a signifier, and thus, an element of identity.
Explore token usage within Twitter bios in the United States or multinationally.
Signifier
A signifier is a symbol used by an individual to describe themselves. In ipseology, tokens and ngrams used within personally expressed identity text are signifiers.
Transmutation
In ipseology, a transmutation is the change within an individual from one element of identity to another. If Token A is present in a bio at the first moment, and it is not present at the second moment, while Token B was not present at the first moment and present at the second, then the individual has signaled a transmutation from Token A to Token B.
Social role signifier
A social role is a socially constructed set of expectations regarding behaviors, rights and obligations of a person when they occupy a particular position. A social role signifier is a token or ngram that represents a social role, i.e. a word that denotes a position that most members of a society would recognize and understand.